For the E Treaty Investor Visa:
1. A treaty must exist between the United States and the foreign country under whose treaty the E status is sought;

The following countries have investment treaties with the United States which allow for conferral of E (treaty-investor status) to the nationals of said country:
Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, China (Taiwan), Colombia, Congo (Kinshasa), Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Grenada, Honduras, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (the former Yugoslav Republic of FRY), Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Senegal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia

To keep updated about the treaty countries, please click here

2. Majority ownership or control of the investing or trading company must be held by nationals of the foreign country under whose treaty the E status is sought;

The nationality of the company engaging in trade or investment is the nationality of those persons who own at least 50% of the stock of the corporation. The nationality of the persons owning the corporate stock is their country of citizenship. Note, however, that foreign nationals (who are nationals of the treaty country) who are also U.S. permanent residents cannot be counted towards determining at least 50% ownership.

3. Foreign country citizenship of the country under whose treaty the status is sought must be held by each employee or principal of the company who is seeking the E status pursuant to the treaty.

The rule is that the principal investor or trader and the employees of the treaty enterprise must have the same nationality as the treaty enterprise. The nationality of an individual treaty investor is determined by the authorities of the foreign state of which the alien is a national. In the case of an enterprise or organization, ownership must be traced as best as is practicable to the individuals who are ultimately its owners.

Note, however, that while the primary treaty alien and employee treaty alien must be nationals of the treaty country through which the company/enterprise qualifies, the spouses and/or children of the alien(s) can be any nationality. So long as the qualifying alien is eligible for E status, his or her spouse and children will be granted status under the same treaty.


In addition to the three general rules listed above, which apply to both E-1 and E-2 holders, the following special requirements apply to E-2 holders:

  1. Active Investment: A qualifying investment must be "active," that is, the business enterprise must represent a real operating enterprise productive of some service or commodity. Speculative or idle investment does not qualify. Uncommitted funds in a bank account or similar security are not considered an investment. Moreover, this investment must be irrevocable.
  2. Substantial investment: The investment must be substantial, taking into consideration only those financial transactions in which the investor's own resources are placed "at risk" . There is no minimum dollar amount necessary in order for the investment to be considered substantial. However, in order for an investment to be considered substantial by the USCIS, it must meet one of two tests:

    (1) It has to be proportional to the total value of the particular enterprise in question (a test usually applied to investment in existing businesses); or

    (2) It has to be an amount normally considered necessary to establish a viable enterprise of the type contemplated (a test normally applied to new businesses).
    Also, under USCIS guidelines, the larger the total value of the enterprise or the cost to start up the enterprise, the smaller the percentage of the total investment the investor must put up to meet the substantiality requirement. Of course, a million dollar investment by a large foreign company will probably be viewed as being substantial regardless of its proportion to the total value of the enterprise.

  3. Creation of jobs: The investment cannot be "marginal" in nature, that is, one which will only support the investor and his or her family; in most cases it should create job opportunities for U.S. workers.

  4. Essential Role in Enterprise: The person for whom treaty investor status is sought must fill a key role with the company, either as the investor who will develop and direct the investment or as a qualified employee necessary for the development of the investment.
For more information on the E-2 category, please click one of the following links:
Duration of E-2 visa, Stay and Extension
Visa Re-issuance
Terms and conditions of an E-2 visa
Family Benefits
U.S. Port of Entry
Change to E-2 classification in the United States
USCIS Processing Time
The timescale for us to prepare for an E-2 application
Attorney fee
Change to Other Non-immigrant Status
Frequently Asked Questions About E-2 Visa


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